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Otteksiz af Kyshgyldarda i flere dage Kyshyl tusushi elementpen tiklei Baylanisady: N - CI N - S - N, tb.

Keibir kyshkyldardyk tarikhi kalyptaskan ataulary bar: HCl - tұz қyshқyly, HF - balқytқysh қyshyl; H2RO4 - sutectin-orthophosphater, al. N2CO3 - sutectin carbonates depatalads.

Al khalygaralyқ nomenklatur af boyinsha N2RO4 tetraoxotrihydrogenphosphat dep molekyle құramynda атомy atomdardyң sandary græske sandarymen kөrsetilip atalady. Kyshқyldarғa suykes keletin oxydterdi қyshқyldardyk anhydridteri (susyz kyshgyl) dep..

Otteksiz қyshқyldardy zhai zhttardyk tikeli urekettesuі (syntese af adisі) boyinsha alada:

Tuzilgen gazdardy court eritkende kyshgyldar alynady.

Keibir ottekti Uyshgyldardy suykes oxidterin sumen urekettestirip alada:

Jaeger phosphordes zhagyp alyp, tusilgen ak buғa su kosyp shaygasak, eritindi litmusty kyzkylt tuske boyaydy, sebeb myna reaktsionalar zhuredi:

қyshқyldyқ oxid + su = қyshқyl

Keibir ұshқysh, turaқsyz zhune erimeytin uyshқyldardy olardyk tұzdaryna concentrli қyshylmen әser etip aluғa boldy.

Som tuzynyk kristardaryna koncentrli kokirt uyshgylyn kosganda khlorly sutektin ak tamany gaz kyinde bulinedi, ony court eritip tuz uyshkylynalamyz.

Hveps reaktive ke kse zhelimine koncentrli tұz қyshқylymen әser etip kөrsetemiz.

Қyshқyldardyң khimyalyқ kasietterі [өңdeu]

Kyshқyldardyk Kasietteri aluan tүrlі bolyp keledi, ony kursetu shin mynadai sұlba zhazyp alamyz:

1.belsend metaldarm

2.nigizdik oxidtermen

5.Kyzdyrudyk Aseri (Keibir Kyshgyldar Ushin)

Қyshқyldardyk metaldarmen әrekettesuі metaldyң belsendіlіgіne karay zhuredі; belsend metaldardyң kөpshiligi қyshқyldardan sutegin yғystyrady: [өңdeu]

belsend metal + қyshқyl = tұz + sutegi

Қyshқyldardyң negizdik oxydtermen әrekettesuі nәtizhesinde tұz ben su tүzіledі: [deu]

yshyl + nonizdik oxid = tұz + su

Қyshқyldar eritin de, emeytin de negizdermen әrekettesedi: [adeu]

қyshyl + negiz = tұz + su

Қyshқyldar tұzdarmen almasu-reaktioneryna tүsedі [өңdeu]

қysқyl + tұz = zhaңa tұz + zhaңa қyshқyl

Keibir Kyshgyldar Kyzdyrganda Ayyrylady [Adeu]

HNO3 - nitrogen tygayitқyshtar alu shin

H24 - өte keң oldanys tabady, sondytan ony kemi ndirisinin "nany" dep ataidy.

H3RO4- fosfor tygayitқyshtarn alu shin HCl - tұzdaryn alu shin, medicin. [1]

Қyshқyldyқ (oryssha: surhedsgrad) - orthans pH lshem birliginen berilethin sypattamasy. Bұl lshem boyinsha pH7 mөlsheri beytarap orta sanalady, jaeger ol kursetkishten zhogary bolsa ortanyk siltilik әseri zhogarylaydy. PH-skala 10-dyқ logaritme negizinde zhasalғan sondyқtan pH4kunstқ pHfem ortasyna Karaganda 10 esse қyshқyl, al pH6 ortasyna қaraғanda 100 esse қyshқyl bolady. [2]

Kyshgyldar - Araminda metalga almasa alatyn sutektin bir nemese birneshe atoms bar kvinder af retten erigende dage ionaryn N + tzetin khimiyalyk kosylystar.

XVII kasyrda nemis chemigi I.P. Glauber (1604 - 1670) tұz қyshқyldy men nitrogen қyshқylyn өzderinin tұzdarynan alyp, қyshқyldy kөp molsherde өndiruge zhol ashty.

Akylshyn khimigi R.Boyl (1627 - 1691) Glauberden satyp algan tұz kyshқylynyk eritindisin kezdeisoқ kokshil kulgin gulge tugip alyp, onyk birden ashyk tқykylany.

Baryp eritindid Uyshgyldyk bar ekendigin kursetetin indikatorer (lakmus, phenolphthalein, methyl orange, etc.) fra Ashty blev bortfældet. Ol indikatorlardy zerttey kele phosphor қyshқylyn anyyқtaidy. Algash Khatty kyinde alynkan bor kyshgylyn franskmand Galymy M. Gomberg (1866 - 1947) aske.

Nøglen hverdag katty kuide alynkan kyshgyldyn sany kubeye tasti. Mys., Sharap Kyshgylyn svenske Khimigi K.V. Sheele (1742 - 1786) sharap tasymaldaytyn bushkenin ishki kabyrgasyndagy "sharap tasy" dep atalatyn kaktan tazartyp aldy.

Ol keyinnen zhemister men simdikterden citron kyshgylyn, alma kyshgylyn, tb. Kyshgyldy katty kydegi crystal turinde bulip aldy. Kumir Kyshgylyn akylshyn khimigi J. B. Priestley (1894 - 1984) kumir kyshkyl gazyn suғa eritu argyly aldy.

XVIII kasyrdyk sogyna karay onnan astam kyshkyl bulinip alyndy. Ol kezderi uyshgylga domstol eritin uyshyl dumi bar litmus indikator tusin kyzylka boyytyn zhatkyzyldy. қyshқyldyң khimyalyқ ramy keyinnen udstrømning til kona til gazdary dage ashylyғannan soң baryp ayқyndala bastady.

Fransk chemigi A.L. Lavoisier құram ottekpen bayanisқan қyshkyldy zerttegen. Alayda Araminda otteksiz қyshyl da bolatyny tәzhiribe zhizinde anyқtaldy. Sondyқtan, Kyshқyl ottektі zhune otteksiz dep eki үlken topқa bulіnedі. Yshқyldy tabiғatyn zertteu 1838 zhyly nemis chemigi Yu. Libikh (1803 - 1873) synғan қyshқyldyң sutektі theorysynan bastaldy. Ol kyshgyl depot kramynda metalga ornyn beretin sutek bar kosilystardy, al svenske fysiker-chemigi S.A. Arrhenius (1859 - 1927) Domstolens depysh ofyl depot өzinen sutek kationionn boletin zattardy atady.

DI. Mendeleev domstol eritin zattardyң onymen khimyalyқ urekettesip, gidrattanғan bөlshekter tzetiinin dәleldi. Bul eky kuzkarastyk basyn biriktirgen orys khimigi I.A. Kablukov (1857 - 1942) Kyshgyldyk Kasyetke-emissioner, onyң sumen ureketteskende tusiletinoxoniumioner (Н3О +) ekenin anyқtady. Mysaly, tz uyshgyly degenemiz gaz kyindegi hlorsutektiң domstol erri erip, hydri hydrattanғan eky ioner:

Uyshkyldyk sudagy eritindisinde tusiletin oxoniy ionarynyk molsheri basym bolsa (dissociationlanu drezhesi zhogary bolsa), ol kushti uyshyl kataryna zhatady. Suyyқ erіtіndіlerіnde Uyshgyldyk dissociationlanu dәrezhesі 3% -ғa deyin - lsiz, al 3 - 30% -ғa deyingіsі - ortasha, 30% -dan assa - kүshti uyshyl deputerede.

Қyshқyl metaldar ornyn basa alatyn sutek atomynyаны sanyna қaray

Kөp negizdі қyshқyldar bolyp bөlіnedі.

1915 Zhyly AҚSh Galymy Franklin Sudan Basқa eritkishterde tүziletin қyshқyldy bolatynyn ashty. Ol sudyk ornyna suyyk kydegi ammoniak alip akvochemistrya suykestendirip ammonochemistry negizin galady. Kyshgyldyk Kyzmetin court oxoniumioner (Н3О +), ammoniumkemi og ammoniumioner (NH4+) atқarada. Skibe eritkende tұzғa zhatatyn mүsәtir NH4CІ (ammoniumchlorid) suyyқ ammoniak eritilse, onda ol қyshқyldyk Kasiet kursetedi.

1923 års dateringer af kemi I.N. Bronsted (1879 - 1947) өzinin protony teori om sonda қyshқylғa өzinen proton (H +) bөluge қabileti bar sutektі қsystystardyң barlykyn da zhatқyzudy ұsyndy. Ol alғash ret sutektі kosilystardyk kez kelgen erіtkishpen urekettesetiindіgin dәleldep, uyshyldyk zhuye tuzuinіk sapalyk ta, sandyk ta sipattamasyn zhasap berdі.

Hveps zhyly AҚSh ғalymy G.N. Lewis (1875 - 1946) zhariyalaan elektrondyk theorysynda yyshyl depot ө zine electron zhubyn kosyp aluғa қabiletti bolshekterdі atady. Қyshyldyң kationer (H +) acceptor Kyzmetin atgardy. Keshendi Kosylystardyk tuziluin sipattaytyn acceptor Kyshgylyna base og metal kationdary jatada (Mysaly, Cu 2+, Fe 3+, Zn 2+, Hg 2+, tb.).

1939 zhyly қyshқyldyң zhalpylama teori søn af қazaқstandyқ ғalym, akademiker M.I. Usanovich yndsyndy. Onyң pіkіrіnshe қyshқyl өdernen kation (proton) bөlip sjenғara alatyn nemese anion (elektron) ypsyp ala alatyn bөlshekter bolip tabylady. Bul zhogaryda atalgan theorylarday (sutektі, protondyқ, elektrondyқ, tb.) Anyмаtamalardyң burin de kamtityn әmbebap teori om bolyp tabylady. Қyshқyldyқ Kasietti atomdar ja, molekylær ja, iondar ja kursete alady.

Hraminda dage atomer bar molekylær (НСІ, Н24, tb.), electrzin elektron қsyp aluғa beiim totyқtyrғyshtar (СІ2, OM2, КМnO4, HNO3, tb.), sirese, anionғa қosyla alatyn knapққ kationdar (Na +, Mg 2+, Al 3+, Cu 2+, Fe 3+, Sn 4+, tb.) tүgeldey қyshқyl Kyzmetin atkarady.

Zertteuler nәtizhesinde қyshқyldiң өzindik erekshelikterin ayқyndauғa қol zhetkizіldі. Mysaly, Kogyrly kyshgyldyk (phosphorus elementin alu kezinde tusiletin phosphorly kogyr) taza thermialyk phosphor kyshkylynan ayyrmashylyky - kramynda totypai қaldykolan phosphor form4, H2PO2, H2PO3, H3PO3), siltilik, siltilik-zher, auyr metaldar cationdary, fluoridter, organisk zattar, taqyda baska zattardyk boluynda.

Kogyrly Kyshyl phosphor tazdaryn, sonymen Katar, natrium tripolyphosphatyn alu kezinde oldanylada. қyshқyl zhylyna myңdaғan, milliondaғan tonnamen shyғarylıp, sharuashylyқtyk kөptegen salalarynda, teknik mænd ғylymda keninen қoldanylady.

Kazakstanda fosfor, kukirt uyshgyldary kup molsherde ndirilady. Kokirt uyshgyly Zhezkazkan, Balgash, Askemen, taqyda basga kalalardagy onndiristik tsehtarda tusti metaldardyk kramyndagy kukirtten alynady. Bor Kyshgyly Batys Kazakstandagy Inder boratynan Ondirilady. Sirke Kyshgyly kup zhyldar boyy Temirtau manynan alynyp keldi. Kokirt uyshgylyn keide kemi onerkusibinin "nany" dep ataidy, sebebi, olavtomashina mænd ushaktardyk akkumulatorarynan bastap, kemi onerkusibinde fosfor uyshgylyn, fosfat tygiyuyuytyshtald.

Kokirt yshgyly khimyalyk materialdardyk ishindegi eң kup қoldanylatyn zat, onyk katysuy nәtizhesinde kuptegen basқa қyshқyl men olardyk tұzdary bөlinip alynady. Økologisk khimiyanyk kosylystaryn syntezdeude, taldau zhasar aldynda da, kumirtekke aynaldyryp arteude de kokirt yyshyly kazhet. Al barlyқ tұzdar-saltitralar nitrogen қyshқylynyң қatysuymen alynady. Odan tygayitқyshtardyң өzegi bolyp tabylatin ammonium, kalium, calciumnitralary alynady. Kuptegen boyysh zattardyk negizi bolyp esepteletin anilindi aluғa nitrogen Kyshgyly mænd kokirt Kyshgyly zhumsalady.

Arzan Kopargysh - dynamit basty kraushysy nitrogen kyshkylynyk glycerinmen ureketteskendegі tuyndysy. Odan kүshti trinitrotoluen қoparyshy og nitrogen қyshқylynyң katynasuymen ndirіledі. Fosfor қyshyly da kөp molsherde өndіrіletein asa baғaly өnim. Onyң biri phosphor tygaitңyshtaryn aluғa zhumsalatyn tazalygy tөmendeu - thermialyk fosfor qyshyly. Al odan Kymbat әri tazalygy zhogary ekstrakter. fosfor Uyshgyly alynyp taqam Onerkusibinde limonade, marmelade, syruptara dum kirgizu Ushin Kospa retinde paysalanylady. Bulardyk eki tari de Taraz kalasyndagy fosfor addetin zattarda alynady.

Tuz uyshgyly onerkusipte metaldan (bolat, shoyyn, tb.) Zhasalatyn byyymdardyk betindegi kaқty, tatty eritip tazalau ushin қoldanylady. Sodan så olardyң betine nikkel, krom, myrysh, kappe, altyn zhatyp corrosiona ұshyramaytynday etuge bolady. Tuz kyshkylynyk kumegimen kuptegen khimyalyk protesterdi zhurgizuge bolady.

Қyshқylғa tөzіmdіlіk - materialdardyң zhegi қyshқyldar әserlerіne tөzu қabileti; Ishki tіzіmdіlіk zattardy tabiғatyn, zhegі ortanyң totyku-totyқsyzdanu Kasietterine, anionondardyң tabiғatyn, қyshқyldardyң koncentrationer af ændringer i temperatur, syrtuy әserlerge, tbysym, temperatur. Mysaly, krom zhәne chromdy bolattar 40% -dyқ nitrogen қyshylyna tөzimdі, al 40% -dyқ kүkirt қyshқylynda bүline bastaydy. Temperatur på artand materialdardyk қyshқylғa tөzіmdіlіk kurt kemidі. Metaldardyң іshki tөzіmdіlіgі onyk birlik audanynan zhoғaltatyn massasy boyinsha anyқtalady (saғatyna gram / meter2). Beymetall organikalyқ materialdardyң іshkі tөzіmdіlіgі қasietі іsіnu dәrezhesіne zhane mehanikalyқ қasietterіnің (berіktіk shegі, aққyshtyқ shegі, TB) өzgeru erekshelіkterіne қaray baғalanady, al beymetall beyorganikalyқ materialdardyң іshkі tөzіmdіlіgі қyshқylmen өңdelgennen keyіn maydalanғan materialdyң massasynyң өzgeruі boyynsha anyқtalady; Қyshқylғa berik zattar.

Kyshgyldy zhakbyr - atmosfære zhauyn-shashyn torleri (ogan kar da zhatady). Zhaңbyr ramyndaқyshқyldyң (pH

Dag gas

Zhaңa base 2018. Kemi
ҰBT-da kelu yқtimaldylyғy zhogary sұraқtar.
Repost zhasap, Wall sagtap oy!!

1. maj қyshқylyny klasaralyқ isomer (-ler) i
+Ethylacetat
+Propylformiat

2 molekyler krystal torla zattar:
+Hlosutek
+fluor
+Su

3 Azotқa tәn emes totyku dәrezhesі (-lerі):
+ +6
+ +7
+ -4

4 Қyshyl tұz tүetin-reaktion (-lar)
+LiOH
+H3PO4

5 fosfor tyңayitқysh (-tar):
+superfosfat
+Phosphorite

6 Kreative allotropias:
+Monoclind
+Diamondsқ
+Иілімді

7 Teriselektrlіgі eң tөmen-element (-ter)
+Bi
+na

8 Kumirsutekter zhananda tusiletin zat (-tar)
+H2O
+CO2

9 Alkandard kuyler-enheder:
+Gas
+Sұyyқ
+Қatts

10 Aminbutan hyshyly әrekettesedі:
+propanol
+Tұz қyshқyly
+Kaliumhydroxid

11 Udstrømningsgasser
+tussiz

12 Suteginin Latin ataluy
+hydrogenium

13 Zher sharynda sutegin massalyk alesi (%)
+1

14 Кн жүйесі planetalarynyң ……….% -I dage atomer af Aride
+92

15 En dag på retinde …………. kezdesedі
+aspan Aleminde

16 dages gasser
+tussiz

17 dage. sыyylady
+ - 253 ºС

18 Sutek auadan ………. zhenil
+14,5 eu

19 H2 Onerkusiptik alynu-reaktioner
+2H2O 2H2 ↑ + O2 ↑

20 H2 zerthanada alynu-reaktioner
+Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 ↑

21 Sutek metaldarymen әreketteskende tүziletin zattar
+hydridter

22 Sutek atomdarynan zhune kyshgyl kaldyktarynan turatyn kardeli zattar
+negligé

23 Metal atomdarynan zhune kyshkyl kaldyktarynan turatyn kardeli zattar
+tұzdar

24 Sutegimen zhogary tempada әrekettesetin zattar
+О2, N2, CuO

25 Zertkhanada i flere dage zhene otek gazdaryn alu ushin qoldanylatyn reaktiver
+Zn for HCI, KMnO4

26 Azot sұyyқ kүyge auysady
+ - 196 ºС

27 Nitrogen +5 zhәne -3 totyku dәrezhesin kөrsetin zattar zhuby:
+N205, NH3

28 Kontrol af nitrogenatomerelektroner
+1s2 2s2 2p3

29 Nitrogenmolekylerynay bayanys:
+covalentti polyussiz

30 "Azot" Degen Ataudy ұsynkan Galym
+A. Lavoisier

31 Kyzdyrganda azotpen urekettesetin suttar til:
+Cl2, Au, Pt

32 Azottyk massalyk үlesі eң kup kosylys:
+N2O

32 12 g nitrogen (zh.zh.) kөlemi (l)
+9.60

33 2L N2 sana-molekyle
+5,4 ∙ 1022

34 1,2 ∙ 1024 sana molekyle bar nitrogenң masser (g)
+55,8

35 5,4 g N205 sana-molekyle
+3 ∙ 1022

36 Ammoniak urekettesetin zattar
+O2, H20, H2S04

37 Nitrogen yshyly әrekettesetin zattar қatary:
+Mg O, KOH, K2CO3

38 Ammoniakmolekylessyndaғy bayanys:
+kovalente poler

39 Azottyk aua boyinsha tykyzdyky:
+0,96

40 Ammoniak auadan jern
+1,7 eu

41 Kyzdyrganda MeNO2 zhune O2 tozedi
+KNO3, NaNO3

42 5 l nitrogen sutegimen ureketteskende 8 l ammoniak tүzіldі.Ammiaktyn shyғymy: (%)
+80

45 1,7 g ammoniak tұz қyshқylymen әreketteskende 5 g ammoniumchlorid alyndy. Tuzilgen onimnin shyғymy: (%)
+93,4

46 30 l kvælstof (қ.zh) sutegimen ureketteskende, ikke genert 11% bolsa, tүzіletein ammoniak klemi: (l)
+6.6

47 5,6 kg nitrogen 5 kg ammoniak alynkan. Tuzilgen onimnin shyғymy: (%)
+73,5

48 10,7 g ammoniumchlorid calciumhydroxymen ureketteskende 4 l ammoniak alynda. Tuzilgen onimnin shyғymy (%)
+89.2

49 ikke-genert 80% bolsa, 126 g nitrogen қyshқylynan tүiletilet ammoniumnitratmasse (g)
+128

50 44,8 l ammoniak totygand 40 l nitrogen (II) oxid (қ.zh) alynkan. Tuzilgen onimnin shyғymy (%)
+89.2

51 Selitralar
+Cu (NO4) 2, Ag NO3, NaCl

52 Nitrogen қyshқylymen әreketespeitin metaldar
+Au, Pt

53 Ammoniak zertkhanada alynu reaktioner
+2NH4Cl + Ca (OH) 2 CaCl2 + 2NH3 + 2H20

Sutegi Ondirisi

Kuptegen Ondiristik procesterde khimyalyқ syntese af shin dage gasser kazhet bolady. Sirese sutektin kөbi ammoniak syntese kezinde zhumsalady; salt sekіldі methyl zhәne isobutylalkohol mænd kөmіrsutek syntese kezinde de paysalanylada. Degenmen, barlyk procester үshin tek taza i dage azhes bolmaider: ammoniak syntese azotsutek ospadan, alkohol pen kөmirsutek syntese - dage zhane kumirtek totygy ospasynan ndirіledі.
Anarlym tekhniki taza sutektің kөp tушtynushy otyny hydrogenationalau process boolyp tabylady. Processen med kezinde 10 - 11% - en dayin dage med zhumsalada, өңdeletin kumirdin organickalyқ salmaғyna shaganda 1 t deletin kumirge 2500 m3 dayin dage med zhumsalady nemese 1 ton alynatyn benzinge 3600 m3. Zamanaui af omfanget af hydrogenering lau zauyttarynd dage shygyny sahatyna birneshe myk sharshyna deyin zhetedi; dage baғasy bұl zhaғdayda alynatyn benzinnің baғasynyң zhartysynan asyp tүspek.
Osykan baylanysty, for dagen Ondirudin en bitter maқsatty zhәne tyimdi Edisterin tabu zholғa Koyyluda. Alynatyn tekhnalyk suteginin karamynda kospanyk az bolganyna ulken mun beriledi. Sogylary zhogary qysymdy instrumentering onimdilik bermeuine ukeledi nemese apparatur pen ondyrgylardyk uuatyn zhogarylatu kazhet bolgan zhadayda ikke energetik shytuynnnyk birsuaardytta.
Sutegi Ondirisinde Onerkusipte Keninen Paidalanylatyn Negizgi Edister Mynalar Bolyp Tabylady:
1) Su gasyң konverteringer;
2) Kөmіrsutektik gazdardyң-konverteringer;
3) Gazdards tereң salңyndatumen azhyratu;
4) Temir - bulyk adis;
5) Domstole med elektrolyse.

Ірі zamanaoui hydrogenering af lau zauyttarynda sutegіdegi егazhettilіk dette birneshe kozderden alynady. Sutegin bir buligin hydrogeneringsproces tusiletin gazdardan bulip alada. Bul zholmen sutektin shykynynyk ңshten bir buligin zhabuғa bolady. Al suteginin kalgan buligi sol nemese basқa shikizattyk, arzan elektr energasy, proceske, andiris skala aray alynady.

Sutegi Ondirisi
Zhalpy malimet
Kuptegen Ondiristik procesterde khimyalyқ syntese af shin dage gasser kazhet bolady. Sirese sutektin kөbi ammoniak syntese kezinde zhumsalady; salt sekіldі methyl zhәne isobutylalkohol mænd kөmіrsutek syntese kezinde de paysalanylada. Degenmen, barlyk procester үshin tek taza i dage azhes bolmaider: ammoniak syntese azotsutek ospadan, alkohol pen kөmirsutek syntese - dage zhane kumirtek totygy ospasynan ndirіledі.
Anarlym tekhniki taza sutektің kөp tушtynushy otyndy hydrogenering og proces boolyp tabylady. Processen med kezinde 10 - 11% - en dayin dage med zhumsalada, өңdeletin kumirdin organickalyқ salmaғyna shaganda 1 t deletin kumirge 2500 m3 dayin dage med zhumsalady nemese 1 ton alynatyn benzinge 3600 m3. Zamanaui af omfanget af hydrogenering lau zauyttarynd dage shygyny sahatyna birneshe myk sharshyna deyin zhetedi; dage baғasy bұl zhaғdayda alynatyn benzinnің baғasynyң zhartysynan asyp tүspek.
Osykan baylanysty, for dagen Ondirudin en bitter maқsatty zhәne tyimdi Edisterin tabu zholғa Koyyluda. Alynatyn tekhnalyk suteginin karamynda kospanyk az bolganyna ulken mun beriledi. Sogylary zhogary qysymdy instrumentering onimdilik bermeuine ukeledi nemese apparatur pen ondyrgylardyk uuatyn zhogarylatu kazhet bolgan zhadayda ikke energetik shytuynnnyk birsuaardytta.
Sutegi Ondirisinde Onerkusipte Keninen Paidalanylatyn Negizgi Edister Mynalar Bolyp Tabylady:
1) Su gasyң konverteringer;
2) Kөmіrsutektik gazdardyң-konverteringer;
3) Gazdards tereң salңyndatumen azhyratu;
4) Temir - bulyk adis;
5) Domstole med elektrolyse.

Ірі zamanaoui hydrogenering af lau zauyttarynda sutegіdegi егazhettilіk dette birneshe kozderden alynady. Sutegin bir buligin hydrogeneringsproces tusiletin gazdardan bulip alada. Bul zholmen sutektin shykynynyk ңshten bir buligin zhabuғa bolady. Al suteginin kalgan buligi sol nemese basқa shikizattyk, arzan elektr energasy, proceske, andiris skala aray alynady.

Su gazynan conversionalau argyly sutegin alu

Su gazyn konversionyalau processer (ainalu) ammoniak syntese азshin azotsutegi қospasyn alu kezinde, alkohol zhune kumirsutek syntese ү shin dage іospasy mænd kumirtek totykyn sutyn alu үshin tnekolyne teknik.
Processen med at købe mænd kumirtek totyky arasyndagy раzara aytymdy reaktionғa negizdelgen:

Bұl reaktsionnyң tepe - tedik konstanter af temperamen 71l 71ayady (71 surets). Suretten kөrip otyrғanymyzdai, reaktionstemperaturen er tөmendegen kesde dage tүzilu zhaғyna қaray zhylzhidy. Yanni, temperatur tөmendetkend, reaktion zhyldamdyky birden azayip ketedi, protestkatalysator katysynda zhurgizu kazhet.

Berilgen turaқty tempada tepe - teңdіk dage tүzilu zhaғyna ұlғayuymen zhane tөmendeuimen zhylzhidy. Sondyқtan praktikada konverteringer birshama artyk bumen zhane keide kumirқyshkyldy satylap tazartu zholymen zhzege asyrady. Artyk bu shamasy ekonomalyk karinispen aykyndalady zhane ol shamamen 6 Araides, bul bastapy gazdyk bir kulemine budyk eki - ush kulemine suykes keledi.
Konverteringsproces ү shin bastapқy su gazy tүrli distermen alynuy mүmkin: қalyptiske perioder әdispen bu әuelik Orleumen, bu ottektik үrleudes.ұmys іstatenabaty baryzneur t. Barlyқ zhaғdaylarda құraminda nitrogen zhne methan қospalær az bolatyn gazdy қoldanu kerek. Convertirlengen gazdan salystirmaly turde onay zhoyylatyn kumiruyshgyl az uytty keledi.
Araminda kumirtek totygy mange dage totyky maximaldy 10 - 20% bolatyn gazdy alu ushin generatorlarda periodty ureketpen bulyk orleumen, otyndy gas toryna zhiberіledі. Konverteringsproces aldyқ, yғni nul-sula gas baғyttalady.
Konvertering af katalysator retinde karapayym temir totygy nemese temir zhune magnesium af ospalary аныoldanylada. Ol krom zhune kalium totarymen belsendіlendіrіledі. Magnesium totyky beriktigin algaytyp katalysatorer kokirt kospalarymen uyttanuyna sezimtaldykyn azaytady. Catalzatorlar tablet turinde formana keledi de, kabat bolyp konverteringғa arnalғan apparat - converterlarғa sebilledi.
Zamanaui katalysator 400 - 500 ° C temperatur kezinde kolemdik zhyldamdyқpen 1 m3 katalysator 400 - 500 m3 gas aluғa zhane kumirtek totygy tepe - teadikten 90 - 97% - aа ainalu dәrezhesіn edқamtamasyz.
Konvertering af tolyқtyғyn ұlғaytu shin protesti әdette az kolemdi zhyldamdyқpen zhurgizilady zhane olar onerkusiptik praksis zhadayynda 100 - 160 Araydy. Konvertering үlken tolyқtygy yeki satyly processer өtkizgen kesde zhetuі mүmkin; birinshi satyda, kumirtek totykynyk negizgi massering anaurlym zhogary tempada zhurgizilady, bulreaktion zhyldamdygyn zhogarylatyp ulken kolemdi zhyldamdyқta zhumys іstudіra mүmkіn Ekinshi saty kumirtek totygy kaldykyn kayta aynaldyrady zhune process ute tamen tempada zhurgizilady.
Bastapky sula gazdyk kram alty eselik artyk bu katysynda zhune 450 - 500 ° C temperatur ja kram shamamen osynday bolatyn convertirlengen gas aluғa dristig (myses): Bul SO aynaluyny 95 - 97% sәykes keledі.
Processen med barysynd bastapky su gazyn Karaganda gazdyk kuleminin ulayuy zhuredi. Teoriyalyk zhakynan ol su gazyndagy SO Aramyna suykes keledi zhane 35 - 40% - dy Araydy; keltіrіlgen mysalda kolem algayuy shamamen 39% forlystelser.
Negizinen dage pen kumirgyshgyldan turatyn convertirlengen gaz keyin soja zhuua, al keyin kalgan kumirtek totyk kaldyқtarynan tazartyluғa zhіberіledі. Nәtizhesinde tekhnikalyk taza sutegi alynady.

71 surets. Su bui men kumirtek totyky arasyndagy temperaturғa bayanisty bolatyn reaktion tepe - teңdiginin konstant taueldiligi
Konvertering af processen med birshama zhyludyk bulinuimen zhuredi, bul zhylu almastyrkyshtyk bolu esebinen bastapy gazdyk temperaturasyn zhumystyk temperaturғa deyin kyzdyruғa mumkindik tudyrady.
Processteknologiske skemaer. Konvertering af processer өnerkіsіptіk praktikada үr tүrlі teknologier schemalar boyinsha tkіzedі. Ol protestin bir nemese birneshe satydan truy, konvertorlardyң konstruktioner zhәne tb. salt sekіldі azhyratlady. Solardyk bir tiptik-skemaer 72 schemada keltirilgen.

72 fod. Su gazynyң konverteringsskemaer
Schemada kursetilmegen gazgolderden suly gas mætning monara kelip tussedi 1, ol khordalyk nemese saginalyk saptamamen toltyrylgan kolonadan tarady. Monara kondensationslanaty nemese su Kyzdyrғysh mұnaralardan kep tsetin 7 ystyқ sumen sulandyrylady. Su for mætningstemperaturen for monaraga kire biriste. Tamennen zhogaryga karay atkende ayp turgan suғa gaz deyin kyzdyrylady zhane su buimen kanyktyrylady. Manaradan bir gaz kulemine su buynyk bir kolemi keletin bu gazdyk kospa bulinip shygady.
Aғyp tұrғan su nasospen 9 mұnaraғa 7 Kaytadan berіledі, al bu gazdyқ Kospa turbogazүrgishpen aralastyrғysh 2, zhylu almastyrғysh 3 zhune konvertordan 5 tұratyn konverteringer af enheden af ​​aydalady.
Aralastyrғyshқa gaz ben bu katynasy birdey bolatyn tumengi uysymda su køb beriledi. Budyk 2,5 - 3 kulemine bir gas kulemi alynady. Bul usu temperatur nuktesine suykes keledi.
Keyin bu gazdyk қospa kadimgi құbyr turizdi zhylualmastyryshtan 3 өtedi zhune konvertordyң orta buligine kelip tussedi 5. Konverter konustyқ bet bar bar lodret ornamenlasқan temir cylinder tarady. Konverter oқshaulanғan zhәne footerlengen. Apparattyң іshki zhaғynda ornamentalan torda katalysator ornamenasқan. Catalystdan кtkend, su gasser convertirlenedi de zhylualmastyryshtan өtedi taza bu gazdyk kospaғa garay keyin su zhylytқysh munaraғa 7 baғyttalady.
Zhylu almasu zhuyesinen atkennen keyin bu gazdyk kospa shamamen deyin kyzdyrylady. Konverter reaktiondan bulinetin zhylu esebinen kospa temparata deyin kyzdyrylady. Konverterirlengas zhylu almastyrkyshtan shykanda temperatur.
Eger konvertorda tempany shamadan tusind zhogarylatyp zhybergen zhadayda bu gazdyk kospany aralastyrkyshtan 2 ushinshi zhylu almastyrkyshka Jeg tager zhadayy karastyrylgan.
Zhuyeni iske kosyp zhne kyzdyru ushin, sol sekildi zhumystagy uolaisyz zhadailar mænd konverter procesinde zhylu regimer bkyzlgan zhadayda, gazdyk ottykty paysalanady 6, olygene gazinegіnіgіnіgіnіgіnіgіnіn Su Kyzdyrғysh mұnaralarda birdey mætninger ondyrғyda convertirlengen gas temparata deyin salkyndatylady, al ogan karsy aғatyn su temparaga deyin kyzdyrylady. Keyin su nasospen 9 kaytadan mætning monaralarga beriledi. Gaz keyin togazytkyshtan 8 suyk su kumegimen kalypty temparata deyin salkyndatylady. Bul zherden convertirlengen gazholderge tussedi zhane keyin kumiruyshyl mænd kumirtek totygy qaldyktarynan tazartuғa zhіberіledі.
Kazirgі zamanaoui konverteringer қondyrғylar basқa tipti konvertorlarmen zhabdyқtalғan, onda zhapy korpusta құbyrly zhylu almastyrғysh, қanyқtyrғysh zhane konvertordyң uzi kamtylғan. Munday aggregattar barynsha kompakt zhune protestiң az energija zhogaltuyn zhune zhogary effektіlіgіn kamtamasyz etedі. Konverteringerқ aggregattyң gazdyk ottyky birgatar zhadailarda elektrlik kyzdyrғyshtarmen auystyrylyp koldanylady.
Konverterirl gazdy tazartu. Jaeger sutegi zhogary Qysymda Atetin prtsesterde Hana Qoldanylatyn bolsa, convertirlengen gazdy kumiruyshgyldan tazartu Ushin Qysymda Adette sumen shayady. Kumirtek totyk qaldyktarynan tazartu ushin kysymda mystyk uyshyl tazdary eritindisimen shayady.
Kumiruyshgyldyk sudagy erigishtigi su temperaturasynyk shamalap zhogarylau userinen tez tussedi. Sondyktan sumen shayudy mumkin bolatyn tumen tempada atkizgen zhun (34 keste).
Konverterirl gazdy tazartu-skemaer 73 surtte keltіrіlgen.
Konvertering gas gazgolderden suly kompressorer birinshi satysynan өtedi 1 zhune sumen zhuylatyn shayushna 2 beriledi. Kumiruyshgyldan zhuylgan gaz kelesi kysylu ushin komirgun khaytarylady, al kumiruyshgylmen kanygan su motor næse turbinans suly turbineenhed turbinasyna kelip tussedi 3. Bul enhed af hydraulik af peninsyllidyshynydyshina Turbinanyk kuregin tusip, su drosseldenedi zhne onyk energysy zhuғysha tsetin sudyk pump aynaldyru ushin қoldanylady 2. Zhetispeytin uuat enhed i kiretyn kiretin motorman zhabylady. Su turbinadan aralyk kolemge 11 kelip tussedi, munda uysymdy tusirgendegi sudan bulingen erigish zattar taziledi keyin graduirlenedi 4. Bul zherde su tolygymen shyledi gazdygardan bosyphen.

73 sikkerhedsstillelse. Konverterirl-gazdy tazartu-skemaer

34 keste. Kumirқyshқyldy courty erіgіshtіgі

Gradirdegi sudyk bulanu nemese baska da shykyndarmen bayanisty sudyk azayuy køletårn koryna taza sudyk keli otyrumen zhabylady. Sendes tek kumirқyshқyldar ғana emes, sol sekildі basқa da convertirlengen gazdyң kompontere eep ketedi. Sondyқtan gazdy kөmirқyshқyldan tazartu onyң domstol eru esebinen sutektі zhogaltumen bayanisty bolady. Shyғyndy azaytu maқsatynda ydysta bөlingen 11 sutekpen қanyққan erigen gazdyң birinshi buligin keide konverteringғa kaytarady. Gazdardyk kalgan buligi inertti gazdar retinde qoldanyluy mumkin.
Kumirқyshқyldan tazartylғan gaz sutektik compressormen zhogary kysymda zhuғyshқa 5 beriledi. Alғan kumirқyshқyl totyғyn alu suyқta құmyrsқa қyshyl bal eritindimen zhane birkhlorly mystyk ammoniak eritindisi kumegimen zhuzege asady.
Kumiruyshgyldy zhutu mystyk kompleksti Yosilystar tusiluinne negizdelgen. Ony myna teңdeumen kөrsetuge bolady:

Kumiruyshgyl totykynan tazartylkan tekhnalyk sutegi sogy ret sygylu ushin kompressor компрессa beriledi, al mys tuzyny erіtіndіsі uysymdy tusirip әlsіz қyzdyrylu regumen drosselanciya Regenerering af kezinde bulinip shykan gazdar negizinen kumirtek zhune i flere dage totykynan tarady. Olardyң shamamen құramy mynadai:

Beyorganicalyқ kemi. Hævelse. Sutek.

Ottegi

Ottegі - zherdegi eң kөp taragan element - 50% massalyқ іlesі. ET

3,5 bolғandyқtan barlyk derlik elementtermen urekettesedі. VI A topsha elementary V A topsha elementterіne Karaganda sutektі Yosilystary berіgіrek, sebebi olardyң ET-gі (elektr terіstіgі) zhogary, kerіsіnshe VI A topsha elementterіnің ottektі vystarynі berіrak.

Tabihatta taraluy. Ottegіsі bar 1400 mineral kezdesedі (kvarts, glimmer, spar, saz, izbes). Otteginin ute kup mulsheri khimiyalyk bailanyskan, erigen kuyinde sudbola.

Atmosfære 10 15 tons, Adam organisme 65%. 1) 1.auans idap; 2) (2H_2O xrightarrow<электролиз>2H_2 + O_2 )

Laboratorierқ zhaғdayda alynuy:

(2CrO_3 xrightarrow 2Cr + 3O_2 );

(BaO_2 ) (peroxid) ( xrightarrow Ba + O_2 );

(2KNO_3 xrightarrow 2KNO_2 + O_2 );

(2KClO_3 xrightarrow 2KCl + 3O_2 );

(2KMnO_4 xrightarrow K_2MnO_4 + O_2 + MnO_2 );

O2 domstol azerid 100: 3. 100 km zher betinen zhogary atom kyinde bolady, uv-saulesi

OM3 - ozon ottegin allotropyalyk tүr gerzgerisі, diamagnet molekyler.

O2 - tussiz, O3 - kөk tіstі gas, polarlyғy zhәne polarlylanuy zhogary O2 –Ge қaraғanda

(3O_2 xrightarrow <эл.разряд>2O_3 )

Atmosfære 3O2 findғay (2O_3O_3 + 2H ^ ++ 2e ^ - højre højre O_2 + H_2O

(O_2 + 4H ^ ++ 4e ^ - højre højre 2H_2O

i ), sodyқtan O3 өte kүshti totyқtyrғysh

Khimiyalyk aktivtіgі boyinsha O2 teknisk F2 nøglen i. D2, inert gas, Pt, Au + O2 → жрмейді. Ottegі covalenttіlіgі - 4, max valenttiіlіgi II. Metalemesteroxid: He + O2→ жрмейді; Ne + O2→ жрмейді;

Ar + O2→ жрмейді. Alғan metalemester O2 rekettesedі. Ottegі zhune metal emester elektrterіkterі aiyrmashylyky az bolandyқtan, oxidterі covalentti baylanys tzedі. Sedytan metal emes oxydterі - gazdar, ұshқysh suyyқtar, tez eritin Katty zattar. Metal emes oxydteri beholdere epip, uyshyl tuzedi. CO, NEJ, N2Om tұz tүzbeitin oxidter, court emeyd, sebeb ol molekylær ute berik. Metal emestin oxydtegi totyku drezhesi өsken sayyn, olardyk gyshyldyk kasieti artady:

Metallards Oxydter: Negizdik, Kyshgyldyk, Amphoterlik. Sikkerhedsprodukter ikke metaldar oxidter fartøjer eridi, b, l oxidterde iondyk bayanys. Metaldardyң totyku dәrezhesi sken sayyn oxydterde covalentti bayanys bolady.

Sutegi

Sutegi (Latin Hydrogenium), H - elementterdin periodtyқ zhүyesinin VII tobyndғy kemisk element, atomi nr. 1, atomdy атом molekyle 1.00797.

Sutekti algash G. Kavendish zerttep, ony "zhanysh aua" dep atakan (1766). A. Lavoisier sutektin kasietterin zerttep, kemisk elementær tizimin kosypty (1787). "Sutek" afslutter orys chemigi M.F. Soloviev Asyndy (өз тілінде, 1824).

B табl tabiғatta taraluy boyinsha 9-genert orynda tұrғan element, onyң үlesіne zher Kyrtysynyң 1,4% bundet, zher betinde sutek bayanyskan kuide (su, munay, tas kumir, al% t. B.).

Tabiғatta turaқty eki isotoper 1 H (protium) zhәne 3 H (tritium) kezdesedі, zhasandy zholmen radioaktive isotoper 3H men ute turaұsyz 4 N alynғan. Sutek - өlemde kөp taraғan element. Masser af boyinsha atmospheresadaғy sutektin mөlsheri 3,5 * 10 -6% litosfære mænd hydrosfære - 1%, skibe - 11,9%.

Sutek isissiz, eң zhenil gas, skibe emeydі, palladium, platin, nikkel, tb. metaldard zhaқsy sіңіredі; balu t - 259,1 ° C, ainau t - 252,6 ° C Totyku dәrezheleri + 1, –1.

Asyl (inertti) gazdar mænd asyl metaldardan basқa elementterdің kөpshіlіgіmen khimiyalyk Yosylystar tzedі. Kushti totysyzdandyrғysh bolғandyқtan

  • F2 –Men (қaraңғyda - (252 ^ circ C ) -ta),
  • cl2-mænd (zaryқta),
  • O2-mænd (550 ° C - tan zhogary) rekettesin tikel silystar (HF, HCl, H2O) түзеді. Sutekti kөptegen metaldardsң (Cu, Fe, W, Re, tb.) Oxidterimen totyқsyzdandyrady.

Sutek azotpen urekettesip,

Sýltisk ikke noget sølvtærmetaldarmen urekettesip hydridter (LiH, NaH, CaH2, Bah2,tb.) түзеді. Sutektin asa makyzdy reaktioneryna CO-men urekettesip, temperatur, қysym, katalysator әserine bailanysyna eller tүrlі organickalyal osylystar (HCHO, CH3OH tb.) Tүzu zhatada.

Sutek elementinen turatyn zhai zat - sutegi, ol eky atomnan turady, formler N2; M (H2) = 2, M = 2 g / mol. Bul tussiz, isissiz, dumsiz, zte zheil (p = 0,09 g / l) gas kyindegi beymetall, onyk kainau (–252,76 ° С) zhne balқu (–259,2 ° С) temperatur өte tөmen. Nashar eridi skibe (100 kolem skibe 2 kolem gas (t = 20 ° С)).

Suteginin kemi kasietteri

Kәdimgi zhaғdayda sutegi turaқty zat, al Kyzdyrғanda keibir zhai zhattarmen reaktionғa tussedi. Sutegi otteginde kuzge korinbeitin zhalynmen su tuze zhanady. Bul Oderis Bayau Zhuredi.

Zhai zattardan kurdeli zat olardyk tikeli urekettesui arkyly alinsa syntese dep atalady.

Bұl reactivny zhrgizu shin kalyk қabyrғaly sonauyқ alyp, ony үshke bulip syrtynan belgilep alyp, 1 bulik O2, kvinde 2 bulik N2 jinap alamyz da (domstole i yғystyru aryly) ony oramalmen oraimyz. Synauyktyk auzyna zhangan shyrpy aparganda қoparylys bere reaktion zhuredi. Sutegi ottegimen shabytty urekettesedi, nәtizhesinde su tuzilip, zhylu bulinedi.

V (H2): V (02) = 2: 1 bolanda kana olar koparylys beredi, sondyktan osynday katynasta alynkan gaz kospasyn "kurkireuik gaz" dep ataidy. Sutegі chlormen reaktion lasқand tkіr ogііі chlorla dage gazyn beredі.

Kyzdyrylgan kokirt argyly sutegin atkizsek, zhagymsyz iisti kokirtti dage stirrende tuziledi:

Beymetaldardyk sutekpen kosilystaryn atau үshin sutekti kosylys tuzushi, element atynady, di, du, ti, ly, l zhaulary zhalyanyp, dage sozi kosylyp ogylady.

Mysaly: HCI - dages chlor; HBr - bromider af dage; H2S - kirkty dage; НҒ - fluorider af dage.

Sutegi ute belsendi metaldarmen ureketteskende hydridter dep atalatyn tz turizdі atty zattar tүzіledі:

H2 + 2Na = 2NaH natriumhydrid

H2 + Ca = CaH2 calciumhydrid

Sutektin metaldarmen Yosylystaryn atau Ushin metal atyna hydridi degene soz Kosylyp ogylady.

Kүrdeli zattarmen Urekettesuі: Eger cape (II) oxydin Kyzdyryp, oғan sutegin zhibersek cape oxydinin kara tusi zhoyylp kyzyl tusti cape bөlіnedi:

Bұl reaktionad til totyқsyzdanu derisi zhredi, uytkeni dage kappe (II) oxydindegi ottekti өzine osyp alada, sutip dag totigady, al mys totyқsyzdanady.

Өnerkәsipte dage metanda konvergens lau ((CH_4 + H_2O = 3H_2 + CO) ) nemesesy electrolizdeu ((2H_2O = 2H_2 + O_2) ) argyly ashylady. Manay zhune kemi Onerkusibinde Kosymsha Onim retinde i flere dage bulinedi. Laboratorium for sutektі suytylғan tұz nemese kүkirt қyshқyldaryna myryshpen әser etip alady.

Dunie zhizinde zhylyna shamamen (350 cdot 10 ^ 9 ) ton dage Ondіrіledі. Sutek, ammoniak, tұz yshқyly, zhasands suyyk otyn aluda, mylards hydrogenering lauda, ​​metaldards sutek-ottek zhalynynda kesude, kan fraktionalaryn hydrotazalau mænd hydrocrackingіsіnde, tb. қoldanylady. Atom energeticsasynda isotopters makyzdy oryn alada. Sutekti ecologialyk taza oryn retinde qoldanudyn bolashaky zor.

Sutektin қoldanyluy, onyk zhananda kөp zhylu bөlinetyindigine negizdelgen. Asire økologi af bækkenet otyn retinde sutektin bolashaky zor. Sebebi sutek zhananda tusiletin onim - su auany lastamaidy. Ozirshe sutekti kup mulsherde methan men sudan alu Kymbatka tussedi. Sutektiң tiimdіraketa otny bolatyns turaly kezinde Ts.E. Tsiolkovsky de aytan. Kazirgі kezdegi negіzgi energi kuzі - tabiғi gas, maj, opgaveөmir. Zher Kyrtysyndagy olardyk kory da shektuli.

Sutektin zherde kezdesetin eң mol kuzi - su, sondyқtan ony onyndiriste court of tara tty elektr togynyk kumegimen ayyru argyly alady:

Sabaқtyң tқyryby: Sutek. Sutektin tabiғatta taraluy zhune alynuy. Sabaқtyң tқyryby: Sutek. Sutektin tabiғatta taraluy zhune alynuy. - præsentation

Præsentationen blev offentliggjort for 4 år siden af ​​brugeren Arkady Bedarev

Lignende præsentationer

Præsentation om temaet: "Sabaқtyk takyryby: Sutek. Sutektiң tabiғatta taraluy zhune alynuy. Sabaқtyң taқyryby: Sutek. Sutektiң tabiғatta taraluy zhune alynuy." - Udskrift:

2 Sabaқtyң taқyryby: Sutek. Sutektin tabiғatta taraluy zhune alynuy. Sabaқtyң tқyryby: Sutek. Sutektin tabiғatta taraluy zhane alynuy.

3 IYKLMNOPR YNEYUYA ABSGDEOIZH STUFKHTSCHSH Auany А құramyn alғashқy ret anyқtaғan franskmand Galymy? L L A A V V U A A G H B F E L L Z UV A 8 b 8 b 8 b 8 b

4 Sutek D.I. Mendeleev zhasagan elementterdin periodtyk kestesinde birinshi orynda tұr. Sutek D.I. Mendeleev zhasagan elementterdin periodtyk kestesinde birinshi orynda tnr. Zhana takyrypty tusindiru:

5 Khimiyalyқ tabasy N, ol ash dep ogylady. Salistirmals atdyқ massas 1.008. Zhai zat tүzetin gas kyindegi dage - ekі atomnan turatyn moleculeadan Н 2 құralada. Sutek molekylær bir-birin ulsiz tartylady, sondyktan kalypty zhadayda gas. Zher betinde ottekke Karaganda i flere dage edguir az. Khimyalyқ tabasy N, ol ash dep ogylady. Salistirmals atdyқ massas 1.008. Zhai zat tүzetin gaz kyindegi dage - ekі atomnan turatyn moleculeadan Н 2 ralada. Sutek molekylær bir-birin ulsiz tartylady, sondyktan kalypty zhadayda gas. Zher betinde ottekke Karaganda i flere dage edguir az. Sutek eң zheңil gaz bolғandyқtan, karysh keңistiginde kup taragan. Кжүн жүйесі planetalarynyң 92% af dage er atomer fra Arayda. Sutek eң zheңil gaz bolғandyқtan, karysh keңistiginde kup taragan. Кжүн жүйесі planetalarynyң 92% af dage er atomer fra Arayda. Sutekti otyn retinde paysalangan tiimdi. Ozirshe sutekty kup molsherde ndiruge bolatyn shikizattar - methan men sudy ayyru Kymbatka tusip otyr. Keleshekt avtomobilderdi dage er gået kөmegimen zhurgizudі damytu kozdelude. Sutekti otyn retinde paysalangan tiimdi. Ozirshe sutekty kup molsherde ndiruge bolatyn shikizattar - methan men sudy ayyru Kymbatka tusip otyr. Keleshekt avtomobilderdi i flere dage otny kөmegimen zhurgizudі damytu kozdelude.

6 Zher Kyrtysyndagy sutektin massalyk үlesi 1%.

7 Zher betinde dage bos kuyinde kezdespeydi, kup taragan kosilysy-su. Sudagy sutektin massalyk үlesi 11% payyz. Sonymen Qatar sutek tabiqatta Yosylystar kramynda kezdesedi

8 Mineraldar men tau zhynystarynda

9 Nej kramyndaғy methan gazynda

10 Zhanuarlar Men Asimdikter organisminde

11 Tas kumirdin Araminda

12 Sutektin eң kup taragan kosylysy - su.

13 Sutek physicals kasietteri: Sutek - issiz, tussiz gas. Sutek - issiz, tessiz gas. Barlyk gaz kyindegi zattardyk іshіndegi eң zhenіli - dage. Ol Suda Az eridi. Zhylu utkizgishtigi ute zhogary. Probe sharlaryn sutekpen toltyryp, aspanғa ұshyryp, meteorologiқ maқsattagy zhumystar zhurgizіledі. Barlyk gaz kyindegi zattardyk іshіndegi eң zhenіli - dage. Ol Suda Az eridi. Zhylu utkizgishtigi ute zhogary. Probe sharlaryn sutekpen toltyryp, aspanғa kshyryp, meteorologiқ maқsattagy zhumystar zhurgizіledі.

15 1776 zhyly sutektі G. Kavendish aldy. Franskmanden Galymy A. Lavoisier sutektin zhay zat ekenin anyktap, ogan hydrogenium dep at bergen. Latinsha b sul su tudyrushy degendі bіldіredі zhyly sutektі G. Kavendish aldy. Franskmanden Galymy A. Lavoisier sutektin zhay zat ekenin anyktap, ogan hydrogenium dep at bergen. Latinsha b sul su tudyrushy degendі bildіredі. Henry Cavendish Antoine Lavoisier

16 Onerkusipte alynuy Zher betinde su ken taragandythan Onerkusipte sutekti aludyk negizgi adisi - domstole elektr togynyk kumegimen ayyru bolyp tabylady. Zher betinde su keң taragandyқtan onerkәsipte sutektі aludyk negizgi әdisі - domstole elektr togynyk kumegimen aiyru bolyp tabylady. 2H20 = 2H2 + O2 CH4 + 2H20 = CO 2 + 4H kJ

17 Zertkhanada alynuy Synauyka 1-2 tүyir myrysh salyp, stine suyytylgan tұz nemese kokirt қyshқylyn Kyady. Reaktionær zhure bastaғanyn suyyқtyk betinde gaz kupirshikterinin Paida boluynan baқauғa bolady. OL - gas i flere dage. Synauyka 1-2 tүyir myrysh salyp, stine suyytylғan tұz nemese kіkirt қyshқylyn Kyady. Reaktionær zhure bastaғanyn suyyқtyk betinde gaz kupirshikterinin Paida boluynan baқauғa bolady. OL - gas i flere dage. Zn + H2SO4 = ZnSO 4 + H2

18 Sutekti zhinau adisteri Auany ygystyru argyly Domstole ygystyru argyly

19 Sutegin zertkhanada aluғa arnalғan --ral - Kipp-enheder

20 Esep shyғaru Oқulyқtaғy 83 bet, eceptor Oқulyқtaғy 83 bet, ecept

21 Sabaқty bekіtu: 1. Kort: 1. Kort: 2. Turt shar әrturlі gazdarmen toltyrylғan. Hvorfor sharda dag gas bar? 2. Turt shar erturli gazdarmen toltyrylgan. Ai sharda dag gas bar?

22 2.Gay surette dage gazyn alu adisi tørrer berilgen?

23 Үyge tapsyrma: § bet 11 - 12 zhattyғular.

En dag med kemi, et element i livet. Sutectin-isotoptorer

Meldebekov Mukhtar Rysbayuly

Zhusip Kydyrov atyndagy No. 54 orta mektep

Sabaқtyk takyryby: Sutek-khimyalyқ element zhәne zhay zat.Sutektiң isotoptary.

Bilimdilik: Sutektің khimyalyқ element zhune zhay zat retindegi tusinіgіn kalyptastastyru maқsatynda elementti sipattauғa erekshe mun berip, bilimderin damytu, tabishelatny taraluy zhytrynuyt.

Damytushylyk: Exo, endothermyalyk reaktionskvalitet kaytalay ryp ogushylardyk tørrer sheshim kabyldai bilu daadylaryn zhetildiru, belsendilik ikem daadysyn kalyptastyru.

Turbielik: Økologiқ Jeg tager turbie.

Sabaқtyk tүri: zhaңa sabaқ

Sabaқtyk adis-tusilderi: STO strategylar, zertkhanalyk zhumys

Құral-zhabdyқtar, kөrneki құraldar: Gaz zhinaityn құral (tұrғy, sonauyқ, spirtsham), Kipp apparater, myrysh, tұz kyshyly, kүkirt қyshқyly, calcium, su, periodtyk keste.

Pәnaralyқ bayanys: әdebit, tarikh

Kateletin nytizhe: Ogushylar experimentik tәzhіribelerdin oryndaluyn muiyat қadaagalap, auіpsіzdіk erezhesin eske tusіredі, zertkhanalyk tәzhіribelerden korytyndy zhasypіr, reaktionstemp..

SABATYҢ ZHURU BARYS:

І. Ұyymdastyru bulimі

II. "Kyzykushylykty oyatu"

n 1.Zattar neshege zhіkteledі? Zhai zhune kardeli zattar degenimiz ikke?

n Kemi er et element i degeneration ikke? Ottek elementіne sypttama berip kurelik (aty, taңbasy, sal.at. masser, molekyler, sal. Mol. Masse, valenttіlіgi, periodtyқ kestede orny bar, allotropialyқ tқr өzgerisі bar)

n 3.Khimialy er reaktionære ikke typen af ​​bjælke? Atagyz

n 4. Termokemisk reaktion af degeneration og reaktionen, ol nezhege zhіkteledі?

2. "Semantikқ-kort"

Fe + CuCI2 = Cu + FeCI2

CaCO3 = CaO + CO2 - Q

HCI + NaOH = NaCI + H20 + Q

2H 2O = 2H2 + O2 - Q

2H2 + O2 = 2H 2O + Q

ІІІ. "Manan Tanu"

Mænd sudyk argy tegimin,

Serіgіmіn ottek atta serіnі.

Yezhelden eң zheңil gazbyn,

Ottekke karaganda azbyn.

1 payyz kana zher betine taragam,

Kalamshard 92 payyzbyn.

Barmyn gazben kumir, munaida,

Bolashakta uzim otyn bola alam. (Sutek)

Бгіngі sabaқtyk taқyryby (taқtamen, dәptermen zhumys)

Khimialyқ taңbas: H, Ar (H) = 1.008 m.a.b.

H2, Hr. (H2) = 2 blandt b.

H2 ↑, i, t, skibe AE (100Vsuda - 2V H2 eridі).

n Zher betinde ottekke Karaganda dage edәuir az.Eң kөp taragan Yosylysy- H2O

n Күн жйесі planetalaryny-92% -i dage atomer i arada.

n Sutektin zher kyrtysynda gaz kyindegi methannyk, katty tas kumirdin, suyyk kydegi munaydyk, kuptegen mineraldar men tau zhynystarynyk kramynda ottekpen redіtatar dage. Zher Kyrtysyndagy sutektin massalyk үlesi 1%. Ol az bolyp kuringenmen, shyndygynda zherdegi 100r 100 atomer, shamamen, 10 atomer af sutektin alesine keledi.

n Sutekti otyn retinde paysalangan tiimdі. Ozirshe sutekty kup molsherde ndiruge bolatyn shikizattar - methan men sudy ayyru Kymbatka tusip otyr. Keleshekt avtomobilderdi i flere dage otny kөmegimen zhurgizudі damytu kozdelude.

Zher Kyrtysyndagy sutektin mulsheri:

Zher betinde sutek bos kuyinde kezdespeydi, kup taragan kosylysy-su. Sudagy sutektin massalyk alesi 11 payyz. Sonymen Qatar sutek tabiqatta Yosylystar kramynda kezdesedi

Mineraldar men tau zhynystarynda

Mұnai kramyndaғy methan gazynda

Zhanuarlar Men Asimdikter organisminde

▪Sutekti alғash XII Kasyrda nemis durigeri PARATSELS ashkan.

▪1776 zhyly aғylshyn kalymy g. Kavendish sutektin kasietin anyқtap, basқa gazdardan ayrmashylykyn anyқtap bergen.

▪Frenchman Galymy A. Lavoisier sutektі alғash sudyң kramynan bіlip aldy zhane sudyң kramy sutek pen ottekten teratyndygyn daleldi. Ol sutektin zhai zat ekenin anyktap, ogan “hydrogenium” dep at bergen. Latinsha bұl "su tudirushy" degendi bildiredi.

Henry Cavendish Antoine Lavoisier

Zher betinde su kek taragandyetan onerkusipte sutektі aludyk negizgi adisі - domstole elektr togynyk kumegimen ayyru bolyp tabylady.

CH4 + 2H20 = CO2 + 4H2 -165 kJ

Synauyka 1-2 tүyir myrysh salyp, stine suyytylғan tұz nemese kіkirt қyshқylyn Kyady. Reaktionær zhure bastaғanyn suyyқtyk betinde gaz kupirshikterinin Paida boluynan baқauғa bolady. OL - dages gasser.

Sutek gazynyk bulingenin daleldeu shin sutek zhinalkan sonyuyқty zhanyp turgan spirtshamғa zhagyndatsa "lyske" degen dybys shygarady.

Zn + H 2SO4 = ZnSO4 + H2 ↑

Zn + 2 HІ = ZnІ2 + H2 ↑

Belsendi mig. + қysқyl = тұз + dage

5. Ca + 2 H20 = Ca (OH) 2 + H2 ↑

6.2NA + 2 Н2О = 2 Nа ОН + Н2 ↑

Belsendi mig. + cy = metalhydroxid + dag

Zertkhanada sutektі zhinau adіsterі:

(ottegin zhinau adisimen salystyru)

Auany ygystyru argyly Domstole ygystyru argyly

Sutegin zertkhanada aluғa arnalғan құral - Kipp-enheder

Oқulyқtyk 207 betindegi laboratorierқ tzhіribe

"Myryshna kyshulmen aser etip sutek gazyn alu" (dupterge oryndau)

Қr oқushynyk aldyna oyyқshalar berilip ishine myrysh tuyirshikteri salynady. Үstine (өte saқ bolu!) Kүkirt nemese tұz қyshқyldary tamshuyrmen құyylady. Bulinip zhatgan gaz kupirshikterin kuzben kuredi.Bulinip zhatgan gazdy sonyuyka zhinap zhanyp turgan spirtshamka aparyp sutek ekendigin daleldeu.

A.Taқtadan suykes teңdeulerin tabady.

ә. Nege sutektі sonyauyқty tumen karatyp zhinaida?

B. sutek tolkan sonyuyқty zhalynғa zhaқyndatқanda ikke baygadyңdar?

V. Sutektin til zhanu teudeuin zhazyadar.

2H2 + O2 = 2H 2O - Q

Turt Shar Orturli Gazdarmen Toltyrylgan. Ai sharda dag gas bar?

3.Kay surette dage gazyn alu adisi dyrys berilgen?

4. Tapsyrmalara-test:

1.Sutektiң khimyalyқ taңbasy:

a) H ә) Ikke b) Cu c) Si

2.Kun zhyesi planetalarynyk kansha payyzyn dage atomer i araida?

a) 25% ә) 32% b) 24% c) 92%

3.Sutekti eң alғash alғan galym?

a) Lomonosov ә) Mendeleev b) Cavendish c) Lavoisier

4.Sutek latynsha andai maғynany beredi:

a) tүtіndі gas ә) sous tudyrushy b) қoparғysh gas c) sous tasushy

5.Sutekti onerkusipte alu zholy:

a) Elektr toғy argyly ә) belsend metaldan

b) auans yyystyru argyly c) aydau argyly

Үyge tapsyrma: §30 nr. 1-12

Sutektin Aramy, oldanyluy men alynuy

Sutektin Aramy, oldanyluy men alynuy

Sabaқtyң maқsaty. a) Sutektің kemiyaly element zhne zhay z retindegі tusinіgin қalyptastyru maқsatynda elementti sipattauғa erekshe mәn berip, bilimdern damytu, tabiғatta taraluy zhune rynіnіenyenyk Ә) Oқushylardyk tørrer sheshim қabyldai bilu daғdylaryn zhetildirip, belsendilik ikem daғdysyn galyptastyru.

B) Økologi қ Jeg tager turbium.

. Өtkendi eske tusiru kezeni

l 1.Zattar neshege zhіkteledі? Kүrdeli zattar degeneіmіz ikke?

l 2.Kүrdeli zattarғa andai zhatar zhatady? Atagyz

l 3.Ottek latin tilinen audarganda andai maғyna beredi?

l 4.Ottektің andai allotropiyalyқ tүr өzgerіsі bar?

l 5. Ægte elementer biri ødem bolyp keletin binærier.

l 6. 2H2O = 2H2 + O2-reaktioner af syndaғy tүzіlgen onimderdі ata? andai-reaktion af typen zhatatynyn kursetіңiz.

l Sutek - tabiғatta;

l Sutektiң fysisk zhәne khimyalyқ Kasietterі;

l Sutek - kemisk element;

Sutekpin court argy tegimin, Serigimin ottek atty serinin. Yezhelden eң zheңil gazbyn, Ottekke Karaganda azbyn. Zhuyede de, birinshi men taramyn, Sygarymmen, Urkez birge turagym. Lavoisier "Hydrogenium" dep ved bergen, Cavendishtin kumegimen ashyldym.

Bir payyz zher betine taragan, qalamshard 92 payyzbyn. Araminda gazben, kumir, munaydyk,

Kezdessemin galde bilsen, dostym sen. Keleshegim taғy menin zhoқ deme, Otyn bolar bolashakim zor menin. Tirshiliktin tynysy su bolamyn, zшіп zhurgen uaқynda kalagan.

Tirek Bilim Men Bilikter. Sutegі ony fysikere kasietі, kemi reaktion. Totyқsyzdandyrғysh.

Өtken sabaқta alғan bilim bilikter texeru shin tүmendegi tapsyrma beriledi. 1. Magnesium mænd tұz қyshқyny arasyndнy khimyalyқ teңdeuin zhaz. Domstole i ygystyru argyly sutegini zhina. 2. Myrysh pen kokirt yyshgylyn urekettestirip, sutegi alyndar. Kemisk reaktion tendeuin zhaz. 3. Auany ygystyru argyly sutegini zhina. 4. Sutegini eki turlі zholmen alyp, tendeulerin zhaz reaktion. 5. Chlorsutegіndegі suteginің massalyқ eclesіn ecept.

Оқushylar myndai еseptі shygarady: eky ydys sutegі men ottegіne toltyrylgan. Hveps gazdardyң fysikere kasietterine suyine otyryp, kay ydysta kai gaz ekenin tabyndar?

Өtken sabaқty pysyқtaғannan keyin zhaa materialdy oқytuғa kедshedi. Zhana sabaқty myday turtіppen atled.

Tuzhiribe: a / suteginin otteginde zhanuy; ә / Suteginin tazaaғanyn texer; b / Sutegin auada zhane otteginde zhanuy; Domstole i tuziliu. Zhasalғan tәzhіribelerden sjenғatyn Kortyndy: Sutegi –zhanғysh zat ottegimen Kosyp zhandyrғanda Koparylys beredi. Oқushylarғa mynadai sұraқtar Koyamyz: Sutegi kүrdeli zattyk kramynda ottegimen urekettesedi mig? Құraminda ottegі bar anday kүrdeli zttardy bilesіnder? Oқushylar stolynda cape oksidinin / II / ұara ntagy bar. Sutegimen ureketteskende andai zattar tusiletinin tabu үshin ryn bsu reaktioneryn eske tusiru kerek. Reaktion af nәtizhesinde cape bos kүyinde bulinedi. Bұl zherde –totyқtyrғysh. Totyқtyrғysh Kymyn tusindіremiz. Tәzhіribeni zhorgizu barysy aytylyp tusindіrіlgennen keyin oқushylar zertkhanalyk zhumys zhorgizіledі / оқulyk, 113 –bet, 11 –zhumys /. Reaktion teudeuin krastyrady. Cape oksidі zhoқ bolsa, temіr / ІІ / oxydin Ғе2О3 aluғa bolsa. Temirdin Paida Boluyn Magnetpen Texredi. Zhana sabaқty oқushylar suteginin khimiyalyk kasietiman tanysa otyryp, myna bayanystardy tusinuy kerek.

Metaloxid + sutegі → metal + cy

Beymetal + sutegi → kurdeli zat

Suteginin oldanyluyn tusirgende myna rection oқushylardyk esin tusiredi:

2H2 + 02 = 2H20 + 571,6 kJ

Sutegi zhananda kup energy berіledі, hveps kasieti nege bayanisty? Sutegin bækken otyn retinde қoldanuғa bolady. Suteginin oldanyluy onyk kasietin bailanisty ekenin eskere otyryp, wenaday kesteni synua bolady.

Suteginin oldanyluy men kasietinin arasyndagy

2. Otteginde januar / zhalynnyң temperatur 2500 ° C /

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